Monday, 18 March 2013

Definition of Pharmacology Top 40

Definition of Pharmacology and Introduction

About Definition of pharmacology
  • It is the branch of science which is concerned with the pharmacokinetics (What the body does to the drug) and pharmacodynamics (Effect of drugs on living organisms).
  • Composition of Drugs, Its properties, interaction, toxicology, therapy and medial uses are studied in this subject.
  • As said earlier this subject is divided into two sub categories (1) Pharmacodynamics and (2) Pharmacokinetics
  • Pharmacodynamics is a subject which deals with the chemical interaction with body/cell receptors.
  • In Pharmacokinetics four stages passing through are studied (1) Absorption, (2) Distribution, (3) Metabolism and (4) Excretion
  1. It is the unique combination of physiology, chemistry, biochemistry and medicine. 
  2. Pharmacon is a greek word which means drug.
  3. It broadly defined the Hormones, Neurotransmitters, Growth factors, Toxic agents in the environment and pharmaceuticals.

Some of the major keyword which are used in this subject are as follows:

  1. Absorption
  2. Agonist
  3. Blood-brain Barrier
  4. DEA
  5. Distribution
  6. Drug metabolism
  7. Elimination
  8. Enantiomer
  9. FDA
  10. First pass effect
  11. Formulation
  12. Generic Drug
  13. Hydrophilic
  14. Hydrophobic
  15. Lipophilic
  16. OTC Drug
  17. Parenteral Administration
  18. Pharmacodynamics
  19. Pharmacokinetics
  20. Pharmacologic Antagonist
  21. Proprietary Drug
  22. Racemic Mixture
  23. Receptor
  24. Scheduled of controlled Drugs
  25. Selectivity
  26. Teratogen
  27. Toxicology

Definition of similar terms:

  1. Absorption: It is the process of movement of drug into the systemic circulation of the body.
  2. Adverse Effects: Harmful effects in to the body.
  3. Affinity: Attractive force
  4. Agonist: A drug that binds to a receptor and produces a stimulatory response that is similar to what an endogenous substance (hormone) would have done if it were bound to the receptor.
  5. Anaphylactic shock: severe and sudden allergic reaction that may be life threatening.
  6. Antagonist: A drug or other substance that blocks or antagonize the effect of other drug or substance.
  7. Bioavailability: The extent to which the drug or substance taken by a specific tissue or organ after administration.
  8. Biotransformation: The process of conversion of drug.
  9. Distribution: The passage of drug from blood or lymph to other body sites.
  10. Dose-effect relationship: The relationship between the dose of a drug that produces therapeutic effects  and the potency of effects on the person 
  11. Excretion: The last stage of pharmacokinetics which removes drugs from the system.
  12. First-pass-effect: After the drug is in the liver it is partially metabilized before being sent to the body, where systemic effects occurs.
  13. Half-life: The time taken for the blood or plasma concentration of the drug to decrease from full 100% to 50% 
  14. Hydrolysis: The cleaving of compound into simple compound with the uptake of hydrogen and the hydroxide parts of a water molecule.
  15. Idiocyntratic: Something pecular to an individual.
  16. Metabolism: The sum of chemical and physical changes in the tissue consisting of anabolism and catabolism.
  17. Overdose: A toxic dose of the drug that cause harm.
  18. Oxidation: Combination with oxygen.
  19. Pharmacodynamics: The biochemical and physiological effects of drugs and the mechanism of drug action.
  20. Pharmacognosy: The study of drug derived from the herbal and other natural resources.
  21. Pharmacokinetics: It is the study of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excreation of drugs.
  22. Pharmacotherapeutics: It is the study of how drug may be best use in the treatment and which drug is most or least appropriate to use for a specific disease.
  23. Presystemic metabolism: Occurs when enzyme in the Gastro Instestinal tract begin to break down the drug before it is absorbed.
  24. Receptor: A reaction with a  substance that involves gaining of electrons.
  25. Side effects: Effects that are not necessary, undesirable.
  26. Therapeutic: Effect meant to treat disease or disorder.
  27. Tolerance: The development of resistance to the effects of a drug such that the drug's dose  must be continually raised to elicit the desired response.
  28. Toxicity: The state of being noxious and refers to a drug's ability to poison the body.
  29. Toxicology: The study  of poison and poisonings.
  30. Contraindication: A reaction that make it inadvisable to prescribe a particular drug.
  31. Synergism: It is the combined effect of two drugs.
  32. Potentiation: An interaction between two drugs that cause an effect greater than that which would have been expected.
  33. Cumulative effect: Poor metabolism or excretion of a drug leads to a build-up of the drug in the body.
  34. Poly pharmacy: The act of prescribing too many medicines.
  35. Opposition: Occurs when two drugs of opposing actions interact, reduce the effectiveness of two or both.
  36. Alteration: How the body absorbs, distributes, metabolizes, and excretes a drug.
  37. Uticaria: It is the vascular reaction of the skin characterized by a rash and severe itching.
  38. Prurites: Itching.
  39. Medicine: Drugs mixed in a formulation with other ingredients to improve the stability, taste, or physical form to allow appropriate administration of the active drug.
  40. ADR: Adverse Drug reaction.