Tuesday, 10 March 2015

Full Form of API in Pharma Industry

FULL FORM OF API

What is the full form of API in pharma industry?
  • Answer:
  • Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient
API is the central ingredient or the main ingredient used in medicines or pharmaceutical products. Substance other than API are called excipients. In simple words we can say that API is the chemical used in medicine which causes direct effect on the disease.

Sunday, 8 February 2015

Difference Between Antibiotics and Antibacterial

The Difference Between Antibiotics and Antibacterial: Let us check it out difference between antibiotics and antibacterial, to know more about Antibiotics and Antibacterial.

Difference Between: Antibiotics

  1. Antibiotics is the broad term, broader range of antimicrobial compounds which acts on bacteria, fungi and other compounds.
  2. Certain Antibiotics may also kills bacteria, Fungi and other parasites.
  3. Antibiotics is a chemical substance which kills and prevents the growth of the microorganisms by affecting the cell wall and cell structure of bacteria or fungi.

Difference Between: Antibacterial

  1. Antibacterial is a types of antibiotics. 
  2. Chemical substances or anything that kills bacteria or prevents the growth of bacteria can be considered as antibacterial.
  3. All antibacterials are antibiotics but not all antibiotics are antibacterials.

Friday, 6 February 2015

Difference Between Antibiotics and Antibodies

Overview of the Difference Between Antibiotics and Antibodies. Let us find out difference between antibiotics and antibodies to know more about Antibody and Antibiotic.

Difference Between: Antibiotic


  1. The chemical structure of antibiotic is different from antibody or antibodies.
  2. Antibiotics are either synthetic or  produced from plants or other microorganisms,  and they are purified to prevent infection caused by bacteria.
  3. Antibiotic attacks the cell wall and prevents the cellular functions of the bacteria.
  4. Antibiotic are like medicines that kills other bad cells in the body.
  5. Example ampicillin, penicillin.

Difference Between: Antibodies

  1. The chemical structure of antibodies of antibody is made up op two large protein chains called heavy chains and two small protein chains called light chains which are bound to each other.
  2. Antibodies are produced naturally by an immune system in the body.
  3. Antibodies binds with the antigen found on the pathogens and prevent infection.
  4. Antibodies are like cells that kills other bad cells in the body.
  5. Example IgA, IgG etc
  6. Antibodies are also knows as Immunoglobulins.
  7. Antibodies are produced from white blood cells.
These are some of the points on Difference Between Antibiotics and Antibodies.

Difference Between Antibiotics and Antiseptics

Overview of Difference Between Antibiotics and Antiseptics. Let us check it out difference between antibiotics and antiseptics to know more about Antibiotics and Antiseptics.

Difference between: Antibiotics


  1. Antibiotics are the chemical substances which prevent growth and development of microorganisms by killing them.
  2. Antibiotics are effective only against bacteria.
  3. Antibiotics may be applied internally as well as externally.
  4. During surgical procedure to prevent infections, antibiotics are usually applied.
  5. Examples of antibiotics: penicillin, neomycin, streptomycin etc.

Difference Between: Antiseptics

  1. Antiseptics also prevents the growth and development of microorganisms but not necessarily kills them.
  2. Antiseptics are effective against wide range of microorganisms.
  3. Antiseptics are applied externally.
  4. Antiseptics are generally applied on skin and wound surface for cleaning purpose and prevents further growth of microorganisms. 
  5. Examples of antiseptics: Hydrogen Peroxide, Alcohol etc.,
These are some of the points on difference between antibiotics and antiseptic.

Thursday, 26 June 2014

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CONDUCTOMETRY IN CHEMISTRY

Conductometry: Let us discuss advantages and disadvantages of Conductometry. This method is also called as conductometric titration method. Types, mobility, concentration of ions and temperature affects the electrochemical conductivity

Some of the advantages of conductometry are as follows:

  1. In this method as coductance  is measured by conductivity meter , indicator is not required.
  2. Conductometric titration works for coloured solution.
  3. Accurate results can be obtained by conductometry.
  4. It is suitable for both weak base as well as weak acid.
  5. This method is also suitable for turbid solution.

Some of the disadvantages of conductometry are as follows:

  1. Sometimes the salt level increases in the solution which masks the conductivity and do not gives accurate result.
  2. Sometimes high concentration of ions masks the conductivity and hence do not give accurate results.

Applications of Conductometry

Some applications of conductometry are discussed here, conductometry in analytical chemistry is used to measure the progress of chemical reactions. Conductometric titration is carried out in order to measure the  electrical conductivity of the reaction mixture. This type of titration gives a sharp end point for the colored solution.

  • This type of titration is used to check water pollution in lakes as well as rivers.
  • It is also used to check the alkalinity of the fresh water
  • Salinity of the sea water can also be checked by this method.
  • It is also used to trace antibiotics.
  • Used for tracing microorganism in food microbiology
  • To check the solubility of sparingly soluble salts.
  • Purity of distilled water and de ionised water can determined.


Wednesday, 25 June 2014

Vitamin C: Seven Advantages of Vitamin C

Some important Vitamin C points

Wednesday, 25 June, 2014

Seven Advantages of Vitamin C

Vitamin C has significant advantages over others and is very helpful to cure disease and to keep body healthy.

The Advantages of Vitamin C are:
  1. Vitamin C in skin protection
  2. Vitamin C protects the skin from free radicals which can be generated during exposure of sunlight. The antioxidant present in Vitamin C protects the body skin from harmful ultraviolet radiation during sunlight exposure.
  3. Vitamin C to loose fat
  4. One of the most significant advantages of Vitamin C is it reduces body fat , vitamin C obtained from fruits are very useful to loose body fat. Doctors says that As Vitamin C lowers the insulin so instead of storing sugars into body and converting into body fat , it uses it as a fuel to reduce fat in the body.
  5. Vitamin C in hair loss
  6. Vitamin C keeps free radical away which may generate during food intake. The antioxidant property of Vitamin C removes free radical which may cause damage to hair by making it rough, brittle etc and ultimately prevents hair loss.
  7. Vitamin C in common cold
  8. Vitamin C controls the common cold and reduces the severity of the symptoms which are caused by the common cold. Vitamin C also controls the allergy caused by cold.
  9. Vitamin C dilates blood vessels
  10. Vitamin C also ensure the proper dilation of the blood vessels and keeps a body free diseases such as atherosclerosis, chest pain, high cholesterol, heart pain etc.
  11. Vitamin C in healing wounds
  12. Vitamin C helps to heal wounds, It replaces the tissue which are damage and improves healing property, If Vitamin C deficiency is observed then wound will heal slowly
  13. Vitamin C makes skin Beautiful
  14. There are tiny blood vessels in the skin which contains oxygen and nutrients, Vitamin C provides enough oxygen and nutrition and keeps the skin healthy and beautiful
Because of the Vitamin C, many disease can be prevented by eating citrus fruits and vegetables, apart from discussed points it has various other applications which keeps body healthy and beautiful.

chromatography: Seven Advantages Of Chromatography

Some important Chromatography points

Wednesday, 25 June 2014

Seven Advantages of Chromatography

Chromatography has significant advantages over other methods that makes it suitable for identification of unknown component from a mixture.

The advantages of Chromatography are:
  1. Chromatography is quick method
  2. Chromatography is quick method for the separation of various components from a mixture of  various compounds which are difficult to separate.
  3. Chromatography is simple
  4. Chromatography is simple method and even a single person can operate the instrument or an equipment.
  5. Chromatography is accurate
  6. One of the most significant advantages of Chromatography is its ability to separate the sample mixture easily and gives accurate results.The ability to separate even complex mixture of compounds effectively, chromatography is widely used method and has applications in various fields.
  7. Chromatography is continuous process
  8. Chromatography also supports continuous operation for a large scale batch.This Chromatography method is capable to run the sample at various operating parameters and multiple sample analysis at a time.
  9. Chromatography is robust
  10. Robust means reliability. Chromatography puts a lot of emphasis on easy and early detection of given product accurately by checking all possible components, as Chromatography detects wide varieties of samples as a result lots of commercial industries started using it.
  11. Chromatography is multithreaded
  12. Multithreaded is the capability for an equipment to perform various task simultaneously within a program.In Chromatography, several operating parameters can be operated smoothly and no any extra efforts are required.
  13. Chromatography is secure
  14. Chromatography provides security to an individual with password protection system. The Chromatography equipment, is provided with various password levels among manager, executive and operators.
Because of Chromatography's robustness, easy handling, accurate results, quick results, separation of solid liquid or gaseous samples, it has become popular and widely acceptable method for component separation.

Tuesday, 24 June 2014

APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

 Biotechnology applications and uses also know as (Biotech) are discussed here. As we know that biotechnology is used in various fields such agriculture , food industry, medicine, pharmaceutical industry and much more. Today various products are prepared using this technology. Various techniques such as genetic engineering, gene therapy , genetic testing are used with the help of biotechnology. Various hybrids of plants, animals, poultry with high nutritional value can be produced with this technique. Various disease can be diagnosed as well as treated with the help of this method So let us discuss different uses of biotechnology one by one.
Applications of Biotechnology

Biotechnology uses in Food industry

Various types of food products are prepared using biotechnology such as bread, beer and wine. Cheese and other products of cheese are also prepared using this technique. It is also used to prepare fruit and vegetables juices.

Biotechnology uses in medicine

Some of important uses are their in medicine using this technology, Various disease can be treated and diagnose with the help of this technique, Genetic information can also be tested in parents and children to treat disease.Various pharmaceutical products are prepared such as hormones, different enzymes or some chemicals can be prepared with this method. Different drugs can be prepared with the help of this method in order to treat disease, Enzyme which is prepared by this method acts as catalyst and in various chemical reactions.

Biotechnology uses in agriculture

Biotechnology also used in agriculture, It helps to produce disease resistant crops which are also tolerance to some herbicides. This technology is also used to produce crops which are resistant from environmental stress such as heat and cold.

Biotechnology uses in environment

Some of the biotechnology technique is also used to keep environmental clean. It helps to produce some useful microorganisms which are used to reduce or break industrial waste and hence keeps the environment clean.

Biotechnology practical uses

It is used in various practical fields which improves the life style of living organisms. It is used in agriculture, environment, and also useful for various plants and animals. It also helps to keep the living organisms disease resistant.

Other Articles:

These are some of the uses of Biotech which are discussed here so find other other articles on these blog to know more about about biotechnology.

Applications of Biotechnology in agriculture

Applications of biotechnology in agriculture: There are many uses of biotechnology in various fields such as medicine, food industry, pharmaceutical industry and more. Out of this, It also plays in important role in agriculture. So let us check it out some of the applications of biotechnology in agriculture which are as follows.

  1. Diseases resistant crops can be made using biotechnology.
  2. Plant which are grown using biotechnology are used in production of various biopharmaceuticals to treat various disease.
  3. Plants are also used to create antibiotics which can be used for both animals and humans.
  4. Plants can be made which are resistant to various environmental stresses such as cold, heat or drought.
  5. Improves yield of crops by introducing various genes which are resistant to insects and are tolerance to herbicides.
  6. Nutritional value of plants can be increased by biotechnology.
Other useful article: Applications of Biotechnology

Practical Applications of Biotechnology

Practical applications of biotechnology, There are many uses of biotechnology which are used in various different fields such as agriculture, medicine, pharmaceutical industry, food industry, etc. Biotechnology is widely growing field now a days, so let us check is out some of the practical applications of biotechnology which are as follows.

  1. Bio processing technology in which using whole cells or the part of cells or the component of cells desired products can be made.
  2. An example of whole cell such as yeast or bacteria are used to prepare various products.
  3. Most components which are used such as enzymes which acts as catalyst and increases chemical reaction.
  4. Cells which are isolated from the animals or plants are used to make desired products.
  5. Using genetic engineering various information of genes can be studied.
  6. Genetic testing is used to detect disease in children or their parents.
  7. Agriculture application of biotechnology for better crops and improved animal health.
  8. Some medical and the health care applications for vaccines, medicines and new tests. 
Recommended Article: Applications of Biotechnology

Environmental Applications of Biotechnology

Environmental applications of biotechnology, As we know that now a days biotechnology is widely used in various fields such as agriculture, food industry, pharmaceutical industry, medicine and much more. Out of this biotechnology also plays an important role to protect environment. Some of the environmental applications of biotechnology are as follows.

  1. Biotechnology produces enzymes which is used in laundry detergents.
  2. Genetically modified microorganisms are made using biotechnology which are used to break industrial waste.
  3. It improves manufacturing of products and reduces the waste products.
  4. Biotechnology develops bio degradable products.

Applications of Biotechnology in Food Industry

Applications of biotechnology in food industry: It is used in various fields such as medicine, pharmaceutical industry, agriculture etc., Biotechnology also plays an important role in food industry. So let us check it out some of the application of biotechnology in food industry which are as follows.

  1. Use of yeast is industries which can be used for production or preparation of alcohol which is the first product made by using biotechnology.
  2. Wine can be prepared by using biotechnology.
  3. Fruit and vegetable juices can be prepared by biotechnology.
  4. Biotechnology can be used to prepare cheese and other cheese products.
  5. Biotechnology can be used to prepare bread.

Applications of Biotechnology in medicine

Applications of Biotechnology in medicine: As we know that biotechnology plays a very important role in various fields such as agriculture, food industry etc., In medicine also biotechnology is widely used, Different types of diseases can be diagnosed by biotechnology. Some of the applications of biotechnology in medicine are as follows.

  1. Gene therapy is one of the application of biotechnology which is used to diagnose and treat diseases like cancer and Parkinson.
  2.  Through various genetically modified animals and plant scientist are trying to make various Biopharmaceuticals to treat various disease.
  3. Pharmacogenomics is one of the applications in which the genetic information of an individual is studied. Using this genetic information the behavior of certain drugs on body can be studied. So that according to the genetic information favorable drugs can be prepared.
  4. Genetic testing is also an important application in which the genetic disease in children and parents can be identified.
  5. Many hormones , chemicals and enzymes for pharmaceuticals industries are produced using biotechnology.
  6. The gene of interest can be introduced into the body using genetic engineering and recombinant DNA technology.
  7. With the help of biotechnology various antibiotics are developed and are used.
  8. Production of vaccines for animals and humans.
Recommended article: Applications of Biotechnology

Applications of Biotechnology

The Applications of Biotechnology are discussed here which  is applied in various fields now a days such as agriculture, medicine, Food industry, Pharmaceutical industries etc, Let us define what is biotechnology. With the help of genetic engineering (Biotechnology) using various living organism or their parts or components , different types of products which are used at commercial level are made. Such as Crops which are pest resistant, hybrid animals with high nutritional value are made with the help of biotechnology.. Some of the applications of biotechnology are as follows.
  1. Biotechnology can be used to grow better crops, hybrid crops can be made which gives high yield and disease resistant.
  2. Value added product of plants or crops can be made with the help of biotechnology.
  3. Crops yield can be improved by introducing specific genes into the plants using biotechnology, this genes are resistant to insects, resistant to environmental stress such as (heat, cold, drought) and tolerance to herbicides.
  4. Tolerance from virus can be done with biotechnology.
  5. Genetically engineered poultry can be done with biotechnology.
  6. Genetically engineered plants can be grown.
  7. Some of the genetically engineered microorganism can be made which can be used as pesticides.
  8. Genetically engineered insects can be made which are used in agriculture.
  9. Nutritional value in plant can be improved with this technology.
  10. Productivity of crops can be improved with biotechnology.
  11. Gene therapy is also available which is used in diagnosis of Parkinson and Cancer disease.
  12. Using genetic testing we can study if there is any disease in children or parents.
  13. Biotechnology is used in making beer.
  14. Biotechnology is used in making bread.
  15. Biotechnology is used in making fruit and vegetable juices.
  16. Biotechnology is used in making cheese and other cheese products.
  17. Various enzymes can be made which are used as catalyst in various chemical reaction.
These are some of the applications of biotechnology which are used directly of indirectly to improve lifestyle or health of living organisms.

Monday, 23 June 2014

Principle of FTIR Spectroscopy

Basic principle of FTIR Spectroscopy are as follows:-


  • FTIR spectroscopy is used to identify the functional group which is present in certain molecules.
  • FTIR is one of the widely used method which is also know as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.
  • In this method of infrared spectroscopy , radiation (Infra red) is passed through the sample.
  • Some of the radiation is absorbed by the sample while some of the radiation is transmitted.
  • Now spectrum which is produced , represents molecular transmission and molecular absorption creating molecular fingerprint of a sample.
  • The fingerprint region is unique for also samples, no two samples have same fingerprint region.
  • The fingerprint region shows different absorption peaks with different vibration frequency between bonds of an atoms in the sample.
  • Hence with this property unique molecule can be identified.
Please visit other articles on this blog to know more about this topic:
Recommended Articles : Advantages and disadvantages of FTIR 
Some more information about: What is FTIR    

Advantages and Disadvantages of FTIR Spectroscopy

Advantages of FTIR are:-

  • FTIR stands for Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy is highly sensitive and quick method to achieve high quality spectrum.
  • This spectroscopy gives better signal to noise ratio compared to the dispersive instrument.
  • With FTIR, spectrum can be obtained very quickly and saves time.
  • Gases, solids as well as liquid can be analysed with FTIR.
  • By using FTIR no external calibration is required and gives accurate results.
  • FTIR is non-destructive technique.
  • Organic compounds and Inorganic compounds can be identified easily using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.
  • Mechanical breakdown is less compared to other instruments because the mirror which is attached in the interferometer is the only moving part in FTIR.
  • Simultaneous analysis can be done for multiple gaseous compounds.
  • FTIR can identify even small concentrations of contaminants.
  • FTIR has a laser beam which keeps the FTIR instrument accurately calibrated.
  • It generally completes a scans within 1 to 2 seconds.
  • High resolution.

Disadvantages of FTIR are:-

  • FTIR instrument have only single beam while , dispersive instrument generally have a double beam.

To know more about this topic please visit other articles on this blog:
Recommended article: What is FTIR






Sunday, 22 June 2014

Some Uses of chromatography in Industries

Let us see some of the Uses of Chromatography in Different industries. There are different types of chromatographic methods which are used to separate  and identify the components present in a mixture. Chromatography methods such High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Thin layer chromatography, Paper Chromatography, Liquid chromatography, Solid Chromatography and Gas chromatography. The list of the uses of chromatography are as follows:

Some of the uses of chromatography in different industries are:-

  1. Chromatography is used in pharmaceutical industries to identify and separate drug products at various stages.
  2. Chromatography is used in food industry to identify additives present in the food product.
  3. In petroleum and petrochemical industries chromatography is also used.
  4. Chromatography is used to identify fats, oils, vitamins, steroids and alkaloids.
  5. Chromatography is used to identify pesticides and fungicides.
  6. It can also be used in cosmetic industry.
  7. Chromatography is used to identify radioactive isotopes.
  8. Chromatography is used to identify toxins present in environment.
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What are uses of chromatography in crime investigation

There are many uses of chromatography in crime investigation so let us check it out one by one. As we know that chromatography is the method of separation of components from a mixture based on the chemical properties, the samples which are collected at the spot of crime are sent to forensic department , and are detected using chromatography technique which directly or indirectly helps to find the person who has committed crime. So let us check it out some of the uses of chromatography which are as follows.

Uses of chromatography in crime investigation are:-

  1. Blood sample can be detected by using chromatography.
  2. Chemical sample which is found at the crime spot can also be identified  by the use of chromatography.
  3. Sample mixture of gas as well as liquid or solid can by identified by various methods such as gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, solid chromatography or thin layer chromatography.
  4. Forensic department takes item from the seen and by use of chromatography they match the DNA in records and if matched then criminal can be identified.
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Saturday, 21 June 2014

What are USES of Chromatography in Pharmaceutical Industry?

There are many uses of chromatography in pharmaceutical industries, As we know that chromatography is a method used to separate various components present in a mixture based on the chemical properties of a mixture. Various types of chromatography are used in pharmaceutical industry such as Gas chromatography (GC), High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Thin layer chromatography and solid chromataography. There are many advance chromatographic methods in pharma industry such as combination solid liquid chromatography, liquid liquid chromatography, head space analyzer and so on. So let us check it out some of the uses of chromatography in pharma industry one by one.

Uses of chromatography in pharmaceutical industry are:-

  1. Chromatography is used in research and development in preparing medicine.
  2. Chromatography is used in analytical laboratory.
  3. Different chromatography methods such as HPLC, GC are used in various stages in drug production in pharma industry.
  4. Quality control and R&D department uses chromatography methods.
  5. During new drug molecule development chromatography is used.
  6. During testing of various chemicals on animals chromatography is used.
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