Sunday, 22 June 2014

What are uses of chromatography in crime investigation

There are many uses of chromatography in crime investigation so let us check it out one by one. As we know that chromatography is the method of separation of components from a mixture based on the chemical properties, the samples which are collected at the spot of crime are sent to forensic department , and are detected using chromatography technique which directly or indirectly helps to find the person who has committed crime. So let us check it out some of the uses of chromatography which are as follows.

Uses of chromatography in crime investigation are:-

  1. Blood sample can be detected by using chromatography.
  2. Chemical sample which is found at the crime spot can also be identified  by the use of chromatography.
  3. Sample mixture of gas as well as liquid or solid can by identified by various methods such as gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, solid chromatography or thin layer chromatography.
  4. Forensic department takes item from the seen and by use of chromatography they match the DNA in records and if matched then criminal can be identified.
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Saturday, 21 June 2014

What are USES of Chromatography in Pharmaceutical Industry?

There are many uses of chromatography in pharmaceutical industries, As we know that chromatography is a method used to separate various components present in a mixture based on the chemical properties of a mixture. Various types of chromatography are used in pharmaceutical industry such as Gas chromatography (GC), High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Thin layer chromatography and solid chromataography. There are many advance chromatographic methods in pharma industry such as combination solid liquid chromatography, liquid liquid chromatography, head space analyzer and so on. So let us check it out some of the uses of chromatography in pharma industry one by one.

Uses of chromatography in pharmaceutical industry are:-

  1. Chromatography is used in research and development in preparing medicine.
  2. Chromatography is used in analytical laboratory.
  3. Different chromatography methods such as HPLC, GC are used in various stages in drug production in pharma industry.
  4. Quality control and R&D department uses chromatography methods.
  5. During new drug molecule development chromatography is used.
  6. During testing of various chemicals on animals chromatography is used.
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Uses of Chromatography are listed here, So before going into detail let us check it out  principle of chromatography. The main use of chromatography  is to separate and to identify the components present in the mixture. There are different types of chromatography such as gas chromatography, paper chromatography, liquid chromatography, gas liquid chromatography, and thin layer chromatography. There are two phases in all types of chromatography, one is stationary phase and other is mobile phase. Now chromatography works on the principle of partition, here the compounds with high affinity with mobile phase will travel further and separated first. There are many uses of chromatography in our day to day life , so let us check  it out one by one.

Some of the uses of chromatography are:-

  1. Chromatography is used in medicine.
  2. Use of the chromatography in analytical laboratory.
  3. Use of chromatography in pharmaceutical industry.
  4. Chromatography is also used in food industry.
  5. Out of many uses of chromatography it is also used in forensic science.
  6. Chromatography is also used in daily life or everyday life.
  7. Chromatography  is used in crime investigations.
  8. Alcohol level  in patient can also be detected using chromatography in hospitals.
  9. Some environmental agencies also uses chromatography in detecting pollutants.
  10. Chromatography is also used to purify water.
  11. In food industry chromatography is used to identify additives.
  12. In pharmaceutical industry at various stages drugs which are made are checked by different chromatography methods.
  13. Oils, fats, vitamins, alkaloids, steroids are identified with the help  of chromatography.
  14. Blood samples are checked with the help of chromatography.
  15. Chromatography also plays an important role in cosmetic industry.
  16. Pesticides and fungicides are also checked by chromatography.

Some of the related questions are also explained such as , What are uses of chromatography in crime investigation or forensic science , or What are Uses of Chromatography in pharmaceutical industry as well as Some of the uses of chromatography in industries, So find out other articles on this blog.

Thursday, 19 June 2014

4 Different types of Dissolution Apparatus As Per USP

Let us see some of the types of dissolution apparatus as per USP. But before knowing that let us check it out what is dissolution apparatus. It is used to test dissolution profile of drugs in pharmaceutical industry, drug release profile of oral solid dosage form such as capsules, tablets etc which  is generally checked for quality control and to assess batch to batch consistency.There are four different types of dissolution apparatus as per USP which are as follows.

Four different types of dissolution apparatus as per USP are as follows:-
  1. Basket type - USP Dissolution apparatus - Type 1
  2. Paddle type - USP Dissolution apparatus - Type 2
  3. Reciprocating Cylinder - USP Dissolution apparatus - Type 3
  4. Flow Through Cell - USP Dissolution apparatus - Type 4
These are the four main types of dissolution apparatus as per USP among all type 2 is widely used. TO know other types of dissolution apparatus such as per USP, IP, BP etc please visit other articles on Dissolution apparatus.

Wednesday, 18 June 2014

5 different Types of Air Pollution

Let us see some of the types of air pollution. But before knowing that let us check it out definition of pollution. As we all know that pollution is as unwanted material or something which is added to the environment which causes harmful effect on human beings, animals or all living organism. There are five different types of air pollution which are classified and listed below.

Five different varieties or types of air pollution are as follows:
  1. Industrial air pollution which may arise from thermal power plants, food industry, pesticides, fertilizers and pharmaceutical industry. Due to cement, steel, paper or sugar industry. Air also pollutes due to textile related industries or due to atomic units.
  2. Transportation causes pollution in which vehicles liberates smoke and pollutes surroundings, it may due to all forms of terrestrial transport, urban transport or due to other modes of transport.
  3. Accidental air pollution which may arise due to fires in forests, by accidents of petroleum carrying vehicles or may be due to leakage or a blast in certain industries.
  4. Smog formation, pollution may arise, in which smoke from different industries released in to the environment and then mixes with the fog present in air which is known as Smog.
  5. Pollution by Green house effect in which several important gases are released and combine with air, which rises upward and combine with the atmosphere and return back to the earth and destroy crops, human lives, animals ,plants and livestock etc. 
These are some of the main types of air pollution which are well known. There are other types of pollution such as Water pollution, Soil pollution and much more. please check other articles on this blog.

Friday, 30 May 2014

Quality Audit Frequency and Audit Schedule

Depth And Duration Of Quality Audit: It usually depends on the following parameters.

  • Objectives status and history of organization.
  • Complexity and size of organization.
  • Number of audit criteria.
  • Amount of human and financial resources.
  • Amount of time and expertise of auditors.
Frequency of Quality audit:
  • To optimize the control of significant quality aspects.
  • High risk areas are audited more frequently.
Quality Audit Schedule:
  • It clearly identifies objectives, criteria, scope etc.
  • It contains audit details, site information, date and duration of audit, proposed activities documents required etc.
  • Resulting in greater chances of audit to become more valuable and cost effective.
Notification of Audit:
  • Announcement encourages the organizational units to correct many things in advance on their and set their house in order. Units are noticed in advance so that it may be likely that performance of the audit smoother and fruitful.

Difference between Internal quality audit and External Quality Audit

Difference between Internal Quality Audit and External Quality Audit are As follows , So let us check it out one by one.

  • Internal: Is examination of quality system and procedures in organization "First party audit"
  • External: Is an evaluation of suppliers, contractors etc., "Second or Third Party Audit"
  • Internal:Performed by team drawn from different departments i.e, production , QC, QA etc. is put together design.
  • External: Performed by consultant professional test implement the associations and of course regulatory who are not party to supplier or customers.
  • Internal: Employees may or may not contribute new information and knowledge.
  • External: Contribute lot of information to employees.
  • Internal: Conducted at reasonable internal with covering all areas of function / operations and hence it is very effective to determine non complying activities.
  • External: Conducted infrequently with examine small parts of Productions, Operations and hence ineffective to determine all non complying activities.
  • Internal: Carried Out by people within organization, they are likely to miss out most obvious mistakes.
  • External: Outsider with fresh approach for inspection , they are less likely to miss out most obvious mistakes.

Types of Quality Audit

Adequacy Audit or Document Review:

  • System or management audit.
  • Determine the extent to which document system represent by the quality manual and procedures meets the requirements of applicable standards.
Compliance Audit or Onsite Audit:
  • Seeks to establish the extent to which the documented system is implemented and observed by workforce.
External Audit:
  • Performed by company on its own suppliers.
  • It may be an adequacy or compliance report.
Internal Audit
  • Most important and requires to look on own system, procedures and activities in order to ascertain whether it is adequate and complied with it.
  • It provides management with information whether their policies are meet or not.
  • It provide line of communication throughout the company.

Quality Audit Objectives

Objectives of Quality Audit Is:

  • To determine conformity or non conformity of quality system elements with specified requirements. 
  • To suggest corrective actions and also to permit regular review of status of implements in an impartial manner in order to encourage and improve the quality of work in all the areas of manufacturing in order to meet standards laid down by regulatory agencies.
  • Also to determine effectiveness of implemented quality system in meeting specified quality objectives.
Scope of Quality Audit Is:
  • All operations directly or indirectly connected with manufacturing are covered thus personnel, premises,  Warehousing, Dispensing, production, packaging, quality control, engineering, environment, personnel safety and document should be covered.
Principles of Quality Audit:
  • Ethical Conduct
  • Fair presentation
  • Due professional care
  • Independence
  • Evidence based approach

What is Quality Audit

Quality Audit can be defined as : "A systematic and independent examination to determine or check whether the quality activities which are performed and the related results comply with the planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve objectives."

The main objective of audit is that it checks the compliance with planned arrangement and implementation.

It is one type of an information gathering activity by the auditors for making improvement and corrective action.

The audit which is performed may be Internal or External and do not necessarily have to cover the whole system at once but it may cover some of the elements of the system.

The first party audit is an audit carried out by an organization itself which is known as Internal Audit.

A second party audit by one organization , working on its own behalf , on another i.e, audit on supplier by a customer

Third party is an audit by independent organization on supplier.